عنوان مقاله [English]
In recent years, the design of closed-loop supply chain networks has attracted more attention, according to commercial and environmental considerations. A forward and reverse supply chain network is proposed to replace integrated considerations, which also incorporates strategic network design decisions, along with a tactical network design, to avoid sub-optimalities resulting from separating the design in both parts. The forward chain network (including suppliers, distribution centers and customers) and the reverse supply chain (including collection centers, recovery centers, recycling centers and material customers) and customer demands are uncertain and they have a normal distribution. To deal with the uncertainty of customer demand, a risk-pooling strategy is used. Then, uncertainty in other parameters of the model is also considered. To solve the proposed possibilistic optimization model, we take advantage of the deterministic model using the Jimenez method as the defuzzification method in supply chain planning. Finally, the model is a nonlinear integer programming model that can be solved using GAMS.